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March 22 2015

cythialarin

Do I Suffer Adult Aquired Flat Foot ?

Overview

When we have foot pain, it isn't always easy to pinpoint the source because we can't visualize the structure of all the bones, muscles, and tendons on the inside. The posterior tibial tendon plays an important supportive role within the structure of the foot. It attaches to your calf muscle and then comes down along the inside of your ankle, connecting to the bones inside your foot at the other side. This tendon's main function is to hold up your arch and support your foot during each and every movement. Every step, run, walk, or jump is made possible with the support from this crucial tendon. While it is designed to perform such an important role, it is vulnerable to stress and injury. A tear during a traumatic injury or stress from overuse can injure the tissues within the tendon. This kind of injury is referred to as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD). A really hard fall during a sports game or exposure to a repetitive motion, such as the impact on feet during soccer, tennis, football or basketball, can cause an injury. Flat foot and flat feet in adults can exacerbate this condition. The tendon can experience small tears and become inflamed. If the inflammation is allowed to continue and worsen over time, it will weaken further and could rupture completely.Flat Foot



Causes

Overuse of the posterior tibial tendon is often the cause of PTTD. In fact, the symptoms usually occur after activities that involve the tendon, such as running, walking, hiking, or climbing stairs.



Symptoms

Many patients with this condition have no pain or symptoms. When problems do arise, the good news is that acquired flatfoot treatment is often very effective. Initially, it will be important to rest and avoid activities that worsen the pain.



Diagnosis

There are four stages of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). The severity of the deformity determines your stage. For example, Stage I means there is a flatfoot position but without deformity. Pain and swelling from tendinitis is common in this stage. Stage II there is a change in the foot alignment. This means a deformity is starting to develop. The physician can still move the bones back into place manually (passively). Stage III adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) tells us there is a fixed deformity. This means the ankle is stiff or rigid and doesn???t move beyond a neutral (midline) position. Stage IV is characterized by deformity in the foot and the ankle. The deformity may be flexible or fixed. The joints often show signs of degenerative joint disease (arthritis).



Non surgical Treatment

Treatment depends very much upon a patient?s symptoms, functional goals, degree and specifics of deformity, and the presence of arthritis. Some patients get better without surgery. Rest and immobilization, orthotics, braces and physical therapy all may be appropriate. With early-stage disease that involves pain along the tendon, immobilization with a boot for a period of time can relieve stress on the tendon and reduce the inflammation and pain. Once these symptoms have resolved, patients are often transitioned into an orthotic that supports the inside aspect of the hindfoot. For patients with more significant deformity, a larger ankle brace may be necessary.

Flat Foot



Surgical Treatment

Until recently, operative treatment was indicated for most patients with stage 2 deformities. However, with the use of potentially effective nonoperative management , operative treatment is now indicated for those patients that have failed nonoperative management. The principles of operative treatment of stage 2 deformities include transferring another tendon to help serve the role of the dysfunctional posterior tibial tendon (usually the flexor hallucis longus is transferred). Restoring the shape and alignment of the foot. This moves the weight bearing axis back to the center of the ankle. Changing the shape of the foot can be achieved by one or more of the following procedures. Cutting the heel bone and shifting it to the inside (Medializing calcaneal osteotomy). Lateral column lengthening restores the arch and overall alignment of the foot. Medial column stabilization. This stiffens the ray of the big toe to better support the arch. Lengthening of the Achilles tendon or Gastrocnemius. This will allow the ankle to move adequately once the alignment of the foot is corrected. Stage 3 acquired adult flatfoot deformity is treated operatively with a hindfoot fusion (arthrodesis). This is done with either a double or triple arthrodesis - fusion of two or three of the joints in hindfoot through which the deformity occurs. It is important when a hindfoot arthrodesis is performed that it be done in such a way that the underlying foot deformity is corrected first. Simply fusing the hindfoot joints in place is no longer acceptable.

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